I Gede Agus Ariutama, nFN Syahrul


By utilizing Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR) model, this study aims to identify the reciprocal effect of the level of education, health, and income inequality in Indonesia. Data of 33 provinces from 2009-2013 specifically means of school years for education level, life expectancy for health level, and gini ratio for the income inequality are explored. Furthermore, Granger Causality Test is employed to test the causality of the variables. The results showed that the levels of education, health, and income inequality in Indonesia shared mutual relationship by applying one lag as the best PVAR model in this study. 


Tingkat Pendidikan; Tingkat Kesehatan; Ketimpangan Pendapatan; Model Panel VAR

Full Text:



Akita, T. dan Heryanah (2013). Educational Expansion and Inequality in Indonesia: Testing the Kuznets Hypothesis with Provincial Panel Data.

Baltagi, B.H. 2005. Econometric Analysis of Data Panel. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Becker, G. S. (2009). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. University of Chicago Press.

Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Sevilla, J. (2004). The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach. World development, 32(1), 1-13.

Burkhauser, R. V., Haveman, R. H., & Wolfe, B. L. (1993). How people with disabilities fare when public policies change. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12(2), 251-269.

Calderón, C., & Servén, L. (2004). The effects of infrastructure development on growth and income distribution (No. 270). World Bank Publications.

Campbell, M., Haveman, R., Sandefur, G., & Wolfe, B. (2005). Economic inequality and educational attainment across a generation. Focus, 23(3), 11-15.

Coleman, J. S., (1990). Foundations of social theory. Harvard university press.

Cooper dan Emory. 1997. Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Erlangga. Jakarta.

Currie, Janet, dan Hyson, R. (1999), “Is the Impact of Health Shocks Cushioned by Socioeconomic Status? The Case of Low Birth Weight,” American Economic Review 89: 245-250.

Deaton, A. (2001). Health, inequality, and economic development (No. w8318). National bureau of economic research.

Deaton, A. (2006). Global patterns of income and health: facts, interpretations, and policies (No. w12735). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Dholakia, R. H. (2003). Regional disparity in economic and human development in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 4166-4172.

DFID (UK Department for International Development).2001. Making Government Work for Poor People: BuildingState Capability. London. Accessed 28 March 2014.

Drapper, N.R and Smith, H. 1996. Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Chapman and Hall: NewYork.

Evans, R.G. et al. 1994. Why are some people healthy and others not? Aldine DeGruyter: New York.

Frank, J.W. 1995. Why 'population health'? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 86(3): 162-164.

Freudenberg, N., & Ruglis, J. (2007). Peer reviewed: Reframing school dropout as a public health issue. Preventing chronic disease, 4(4).

Gan, L., and Gong, G. (2004), “Mortality Risk and Educational Attainment of Black and White Men.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, #10381.

Gan, L. and Gong,. G. (2007). Estimating Interdependence Between Health and Education in a Dynamic Model. NBER Working Paper No. 12830, Cambridge, MA: NBER.

Grossman, Michael, and Kaestner, R. (1997), “Effects of Education on Health,” in J. R. Berhman and N. Stacey, eds., The Social Benefits of Education (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).

Gregorio, J. D., & Lee, J. W. (2002). Education and income inequality: new evidence from

cross‐country data. Review of income and wealth, 48(3), 395-416.

Gujarati, D.N. 1992. Basic Econometrics. McGraw-Hill International.

Gujarati, D. N. 2003. Basics Econometrics. International Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Singapore.

Ghazali, I. 2005. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program SPSS. Edisi III. Badan Penerbit Undip. Semarang.

Higgins, C., Lavin, T., dan Metcalfe, O. (2008). Health impacts of education a review. Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH).

Kaplan, G. A., Pamuk, E. R., Lynch, J. W., Cohen, R. D., dan Balfour, J. L. (1996). Inequality in income and mortality in the United States: analysis of mortality and potential pathways. Bmj, 312(7037), 999-1003.

Kawachi, I., dan Kennedy, B. P.. (1997). "The Relationship of Income Inequality to Mortality: Does the Choice of Indicator Matter?" Social Science &Medicine 45: 1121-1127.

Kawachi, I., dan Kennedy, B. P. (1999). Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms. Health services research, 34(1 Pt 2), 215.

Kementerian Kesehatan. (2014). Profil kesehatan indonesia tahun 2013. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan.

Knight, J. B. dan Sabot, R. H.,1983, Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect, American Economic Review, 73,5: 1132- 1136.

Koivusilta, L., Rimpelä, A., dan Rimpelä, M. (1998). Health related lifestyle in adolescence predicts adult educational level: a longitudinal study from Finland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52(12), 794-801.

Kurian, N. J. (2000). Widening regional disparities in India: some indicators. Economic and Political Weekly, 538-550.

Leigh, A., Jencks, C., dan Smeeding, T. M. (2009). Health and economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Murray, C. J., & Chen, L. C. (1992). Understanding morbidity change. The Population and Development Review, 481-503.

Oates, W. E. (1999). An essay on fiscal federalism. Journal of economic literature, 1120-1149.

Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., dan Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annual review of sociology, 36, 349.

Park, K. H. (1996). Educational expansion and educational inequality on income distribution. Economics of education review, 15(1), 51-58.

Pradono, J., dan Sulistyowati, N. Hubungan Antara Tingkat Pendidikan, Pengetahuan Tentang Kesehatan Lingkungan, Perilaku Hidup Sehat Dengan Status Kesehatan Studi Korelasi pada Penduduk Umur 10–24 Tahun di Jakarta Pusat (Correlation between Education Level, Knowledge of Environmental.

Preston, S. H. (1975). The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. Population studies, 29(2), 231-248.

Ram, R. (1989). Can educational expansion reduce income inequality in less- developed countries?. Economics of Education Review, 8(2), 185-195.

Ram, R. (1990). Educational expansion and schooling inequality: International evidence and some implications. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 266- 274.

Resosudarmo, B. P., dan Vidyattama*, Y. (2008). Indonesia's changing economic geography. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 44(3), 407-435.

Riduwan. 2006. Metode dan Teknik Menyusun Tesis. Bandung: Alfabeta.


M. (2006). The Fermat Point of a Hyperbolic Triangle. BA. Bellarmine University.

Lynch, J. W., Smith, G. D., Kaplan, G. A., dan House, J. S. (2000). Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 320(7243), 1200.

Nazir, M. 1988. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia

Malik, K. (2014). Human Development Report 2014: Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. New York: United Nations Development Programme.(http://hdr. undp. org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report- en-1. pdf).

Mayer, S. E. (2001). How Did the Increase in Economic Inequality between 1970 and 1990 Affect Children's Educational Attainment? 1. American Journal of Sociology, 107(1), 1-32.

Mullahy, J., Robert, S., dan Wolfe, B. (2001). Health, income, and inequality: Review and redirection for the Wisconsin Russell Sage Working Group. New York City: Russell Sage Foundation, 5-6.

Rogot, E., Sorlie, P. D., dan Johnson, N. J. (1992). Life expectancy by employment status, income, and education in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Public health reports, 107(4), 457.

Rosadi. 2011. Ekonometrika & Analisis Runtun Waktu Terapan dengan EViews. Yogyakarta: Andi.

Ross, C. E., dan Mirowsky, J. (1999). Refining the association between education and health: the effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity.Demography, 36(4), 445- 460.

Rostow, W. W. (1962). The Stages of Economic Growth. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 2, 38, 59.

Sari, R. K. 2000. Regresi Nonparametrik Dengan Pendekatan Kernel, Skripsi. Jurusan Statistika ITS. Surabaya.

Smith, J. P. (2004). Unraveling the SES: Health connection. Population and development review, 108-132.

Speake, D. L., Cowart, M. E., dan Pellet, K. (1989). Health perceptions and lifestyles of the elderly. Research in Nursing & Health, 12(2), 93-100.

Stewart, F., Brown, G. K., dan Mancini, L. (2005). Why horizontal inequalities matter: some implications for measurement. Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity.

Sudarmanto, R. G. 2005. Analisis Regresi Linier Ganda dengan SPSS. Edisi Pertama. Cetakan Pertama. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Supranto, J. 2001. Statistik : Teori dan Aplikasi.6th ed., Jakarta: Erlangga.

Sylwester, K. (2000). Income inequality, education expenditures, and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 63(2), 379-398.

Trihendradi, C. 2005. Step by Step SPSS 13 Analisis Data Statistik. Yogyakarta: Andi.

Wagstaff, A., dan Van Doorslaer, E. (2000). Equity in health care finance and delivery. Handbook of health economics, 1, 1803- 1862.

WHO in Indonesia-Health System. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2015, from _24.htm

Widarjono, A. 2005. Ekonometrika: Teori dan Aplikasi untuk Ekonomi dan Bisnis. Yogyakarta: Ekonosia Fakultas Ekonomi UI.

Wilkinson, R. G. 1996. Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. London: Routledge.

Winarno, W. W. 2007. Analisis Ekonometrika dan Statistika dengan Eviews. UPP STIM YKPN. Yogyakarta.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 INFO ARTHA

Our Journal has been Indexed by:

Creative Commons License

Info Artha by Publishing Unit PKN STAN is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Statistic of Visitors web
analytics View My Stats

Free counters!

Copyright © 2017, Politeknik Keuangan Negara STAN. All Rights Reserved.