The Effect of Trade Openness, Customs Tariff, Financial Penalty, and Regional Trade Agreement on Trade Misinvoicing

Authors

  • Desi Riana Prasetya PKN STAN
  • Aditya Subur Purwana Department of Customs and Excise, Polytechnic of State Finance STAN

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31092/jpbc.v5i1.1149

Abstract

Trade misinvoicing is one of the illegal practices hiding behind legal trade with the purpose of tax evasion and capital flight. It is estimated that Indonesia had a potential loss of $6.5 billion in state revenue linked to trade misinvoicing in 2016. This study aims to obtain empirical evidence on the factors affecting trade misinvoicing, namely trade openness, customs tariff, financial penalty, and trade agreement in trade activities between Indonesia and its trading partner countries. The analysis was conducted on 83 trade partner countries listed on the UN Comtrade from 2010 to 2019 which were selected through a purposive sampling method; thus 830 observations were obtained. This study engages two-panel data regression models, namely a model with import misinvoicing and export misinvoicing as a proxy for trade misinvoicing. The results of this study indicate that customs tariffs, financial penalties, and trade agreements affect import misinvoicing. Furthermore, customs tariffs and financial penalties affect export misinvoicing. Meanwhile, trade openness does not affect trade misinvoicing, both from the import and export side.

Keywords: customs tariff, financial penalty, trade agreement, trade openness, trade misinvoicing

Trade misinvoicing merupakan salah satu praktik ilegal yang bersembunyi dibalik perdagangan yang sah dengan tujuan penghindaran pajak dan pelarian modal yang mengakibatkan Indonesia mengalami potensi kehilangan penerimaan sebesar $6,5 miliar pada tahun 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh faktor trade openness, customs tariff, financial penalty, dan trade agreement terhadap trade misinvoicing yang terdapat pada perdagangan antara Indonesia dan negara mitra dagangnya. Analisis dalam penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 83 negara mitra dagang yang tercatat di UN Comtrade selama kurun waktu 2010 s.d. 2019 dengan metode purposive sampling, sehingga diperoleh 830 observasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua model regresi data panel, yaitu model dengan import misinvoicing dan export misinvoicing sebagai proksi dari trade misinvoicing. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa customs tariff, financial penalty, dan trade agreement berpengaruh terhadap import misinvoicing. Selanjutnya, customs tariff dan financial penalty berpengaruh terhadap export misinvoicing. Sedangkan trade openness tidak berpengaruh terhadap trade misinvoicing baik dari sisi impor maupun ekspor.

Kata kunci: customs tariff, financial penalty, trade agreement, trade openness, trade misinvoicing

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Published

2021-09-17

How to Cite

Prasetya, D. R., & Aditya Subur Purwana. (2021). The Effect of Trade Openness, Customs Tariff, Financial Penalty, and Regional Trade Agreement on Trade Misinvoicing. JURNAL PERSPEKTIF BEA DAN CUKAI, 5(1), 98–122. https://doi.org/10.31092/jpbc.v5i1.1149

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Articles